Learn Exosomes and Musculoskeletal Disorders

FRACTURE HEALING

Fracture Healing

Normal fracture healing requires stability of the fracture and a complex process involving resorption of damaged bone, followed by replacement with production of new bone matrix. This process is governed by cellular communication involving osteoblasts and osteoclasts from injury and inflammation to bone regeneration.

MSC exosomes and specific exosomal micro RNAs have demonstrated positive effects on fracture healing in animal models. Perinatal MSC exosomes may enhance fracture healing by promoting angiogenesis (VEGF, HIF-1α) and inducing osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Injection of MSC-exos into necrotic
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2019 2014 2013
Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by inflammation and erosion of joint cartilage and underlying bone. Common symptoms include joint pain, swelling, stiffness and functional disability. These symptoms progress with continued degradation of joint cartilage. Osteoarthritis may be caused by previous joint injury, genetic factors, excessive use/loading and limb malalignment. Microscopic wear particles of cartilage are eroded from incongruent or unevenly loaded joint surfaces. These wear particles are consumed by macrophages, which use enzymes to break them down. These enzymes further damage the joint cartilage causing a vicious cycle that exacerbates the structural irregularity of of the cartilage surface.
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2019 2018 2017
Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition that results from loss of bone mass and has an increased risk of associated fractures such as hip, wrist, shoulder and spine fractures. Osteoporosis may be the result of lower levels of estrogen, alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, kidney disease or some medications. Maintenance of adequate bone stock may depend on adequate nutrition and other lifestyle factors. Bone homeostasis is a balance between the activity of osteoblasts, cells that produce bone matrix, and osteoclasts, cells that resorb bone in order to prepare for normal bone remodeling. Disruption of this balance leads to progressive bone loss and higher fracture risk. MSC exosomes may have the potential to improve osteoporosis by
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2019 2018

Osteonecrosis

Osteonecrosis, or avascular necrosis of bone,results from compromise of the blood supply to a part of a bone. Necrosis of the bone may cause collapse of the bone supporting a joint and irregularity of the joint surface, leading to pain, inflammation and accelerated degeneration of joint cartilage. Causes of osteonecrosis include fracture, dislocation, alcoholism and corticosteroid use. Various surgical treatments have traditionally been employed to arrest the progression of the disease or deal with the sequelae. MSC exosomes may represent effective therapy for avascular necrosis by promoting angiogenesis, maintaining cell viability and preventing bone loss. MSC exosomes have demonstrated efficacy in animal models of femoral
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2017

Exosomes Education

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