Learn About Exosomes and  Neurologic Disease

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disabling paralytic disease characterized by fasciculations and progressive weakness that results from the death of motor neurons. Weakness in the arms or legs, difficulty with speech or swallowing, and cognitive and behavioral difficulties may develop during the course of the disease. The cause of this disease is not fully understood but studies seem to indicate that the pathogenesis of the disease may involve abnormal cellular signaling pathways, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

MSC exosomes are known to alter cellular signaling pathways in neuronal
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2017 2016
Autism

Autism

Autism is a neurologic disorder characterized by repetitive behaviours, impairment of social interaction and communication skills and cognitive inflexibility. Intranasal MSC exosomes improve autistic-like behaviour in established murine models of autism with a significant increase in social interaction and ultrasonic vocalizations, reduced repetitive behaviours and improved maternal behaviors and no negative safety symptoms. This suggests that MSC exosomes may be a viable option for treatment of autism spectrum disorders.
2019 2018
Biodistribution

Biodistribution

Treating traumatic, degenerative and inflammatory conditions in the central nervous system (CNS) with MSC exosomes requires localization of the exosomes to the areas of the brain or spinal cord that are involved with the specific condition. Biodistribution studies have tracked the migration and homing patterns of intranasally administered MSC exosomes in different brain pathologies, including stroke, autism, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. MSC exosomes specifically target and accumulate in pathologic areas of the brain up to 96 hours after administration with selective uptaken by neuronal cells in these areas, whereas in healthy controls they evacuate the CNS within 24 hours. Tracking the migration and homing patterns
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2019
Dementia

Dementia

Dementia is a condition characterized by a decline in memory and cognitive skills such as problem-solving and language. This condition most commonly affects people of advanced age and can severely affect a person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which may be characterized histologically by amyloid β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal atrophy and loss.

Recent studies seem to indicate that a central part of the pathogenesis of dementia is related to an increase in inflammation in mid-life. This long-term
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2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause devastating neuologic deficits with permanent loss of motor, sensory and autonomic function. The primary mechanical injury physically disrupts axons, blood vessels and the cell membranes. Disruption of the blood vessels, increased tissue pressure, vasospasm and thrombosis cause ischemia with damage to the gray matter within 24 hours and demyelination over a week. Demyelination disrupts nerve conduction and subjects axons to additional damage from free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. The loss of neurologic function below the level of injury results from destruction of the white matter at the site of injury, which may involve cyst formation and glial scarring. MSC exosomes may provide and
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2019
Stroke

Stroke

Significant morbidity may result from a cerebrovascular accident or stroke, which is caused by interruption of the blood flow to the brain. Stroke patients may suffer from numbness or paralysis, difficulty speaking or walking, and visual disturbances. The principal prerequisite for a stroke is cerebrovascular disease, which like systemic vascular disease, is in part mediated by inflammation, and is characterized by narrowing of the blood vessels with reduced blood flow. Ischemia in the brain may cause an infarct and severe potentially irreversible disability.

MSC exosomes may offer a way to treat or prevent stroke and reduce
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2019 2018 2016
Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by headache, confusion, loss of consciousness, sensory problems such as blurred vision or tinnitus, memory and concentration problems, mood changes depression, anxiety, convulsions, seizures and coma. It may result from penetrating or non-penetrating injuries to the head. TBI causes transient cell membrane disruptions that disrupt the membrane potential through redistribution of ions and neurotransmitters such as calcium, potassium and glutamate. The resulting accumulation of calcium ions in the mitochondria induces oxidative stress, impairs mitochondrial function and corresponds with the level of cognitive deficits. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and
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2019 2017 2016 2015

Parkinson’s

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremors and postural instability caused by loss of the nigral dopaminergic neurons and subsequent dopamine deficit in the brain. Exosomes have to used to prevent 6-OHDA-induced toxicity by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the percentage of apoptotic cells and caspase-3/7 activity. Neural and mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes protect dopaminergic cells from oxidative insults through delivery of catalase and peroxiredoxins, which attenuate neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson’s.
2019 2018 2016

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