oncology

Learn About Exosomes and Cancer

Bioengineering

Bioengineering

Engineering exosomes, produced by progenitor cells of a variety of different tissue types, may help to optimize their potential therapeutic value for malignant conditions. Expressing specific cancer cell antigen receptors on the membrane of exosomes may facilitate targeting and internalization by the corresponding malignant cells. Expressing specific cancer cell antigens along with immunogenic antigens such as mycobacterial may help to stimulate an immune response and the development of antibodies to the tumor antigen much like a vaccine. Exposure of the parent cells to external stimuli, such as IFN-γ or IL-2, can effectively modify the protein and RNA contents of their exosomes to exert different effects on target cells,
…read more
2019 2018 2017 2016 2014 2013 2012 2008
Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Exosomes produced by cancer cells, like those produced in other disease states, have a significantly different protein and RNA profile than normal cells of the corresponding tissue type. Some of the tumor-specific proteins may be preferentially expressed on the membrane of the exosome, such as CD 315 or CD 47, while a multitude of others may be contained within the exosomes. The miRNA contents of circulating exosomes produced by cancer cells also differ in ways that may be characteristic for specific malignancies and even indicative of the stage or metastatic potential of the disease. Even a few specific miRNAs may be enough to implement early detection with high accuracy. In gastric cancer cell exosomes, miR-214, miR-221
…read more
2019 2017 2015 2014
Exotherapy

Exotherapy

Combining some of the intrinsic tumor suppressive properties of exosomes with their regenerative effects on normal or damaged tissue may present an opportunity for exosome-based therapeutics for malignancy either alone or as an adjunct to more conventional such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Perinatal MSC exosomes may help to repair collateral damage to normal ovarian tissue after cisplatin therapy. Delivery of exosomal miR-7 may help sensitize glioblastoma cells to TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). Perinatal MSC exosomes may also help to augment the pro-apoptotic effects of chemotherapeutic agents on cancer cells, while helping to restore normal cells damaged by these cytotoxic agents as
…read more
2019 2018 2017
Metastasis

Metastasis

Progression of tumors from tissue invasion to metastasis involves the acquisition of biologic properties that enable cells to spread from the primary tumor site to distant locations and establish a new blood supply there. Some of these pro-metastatic properties may be acquired from exosomes produced by tumor-resident mesenchymal stem cells converted to cancer associated fibroblasts after internalization of cancer cell exosomes. Specific exosomal miRNAs have been associated with inreased rates of metastasis. In pancreatic cancer, miR-10, miR-21 and members of the miR-200 family may regulate cell migration, invasiveness and metastasis. Exosomal Sox2ot may also promote tumor invasion
…read more
2019 2017 2014
Oncogenesis

Oncogenesis

Exosome exchange between cancer cells and nearby progenitor cells plays a significant role in tumorigenesis. Cancer cell-derived exosomes have a significantly different proteome and miRNA profile than normal somatic cells. When tumor exosomes are internalized by progenitor cells of mesenchymal origin, they induce a transformation from progenitor cells to tumorigenic stromal cells referred to as tumor-associated myofibroblasts or cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs, in turn, support the development of the tumor stroma creating a favorable microenvironment for cancer development. Exosomes released by tumor-resident progenitor cells increase expression of tumor-promoting factors
…read more
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Tumor Suppression

Tumor Suppression

Compared with cancer cells, MSC exosomes exhibit significantly different protein and RNA profiles, which may confer the ability to alter tumor behavior by transferring these molecular contents. Sequencing of MSC exosomal RNAs reveals a rich population of microRNAs (miRNAs), which exhibit anti-cancer activities by targeting different molecules associated with cancer survival. Having demonstrated internalization of MSC exosomes into tumor cells, exosomal delivery of these miRNAs is very likely a part of the mechanism, by which these exosomes exert tumor suppression. For example, in breast cancer cells, MSC exosomes have been shown to significantly down-regulate the expression of VEGF, through
…read more
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2013

Exosomes Education

Learn about the cellular and molecular biology of exosomes from world-leading exosome scientists.

Discover the potential of exosomes for diagnostic and therapeutic clinical applications and the latest developments in exosome clinical research from physicians and surgeons.

Experience live exosome production and analysis including protein & RNA sequencing, flow cytometry, Nano Tracking Analysis, dSTORM super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and cellular bioassays.